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Visualizalising tabular data

Author: Achyuthuni Sri Harsha
In this visualistion, we look at various visualisation types on data type tables.

Matplotlib is the most popular library for viz in Python. Seaborn is built on top of it with integrated analysis, specialized plots, and pretty good integration with Pandas. Plotly express is another library for viz.

Also see the full gallery of Seaborn or Matplotlib.

#disable some annoying warnings
import warnings
warnings.filterwarnings('ignore', category=FutureWarning)

#plots the figures in place instead of a new window
%matplotlib inline

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
import as px

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

In this blog, we are going to look into the Airbnb data for London. We will look at some trends, patterns and effect of seasonality on the data.
First, let us ponder over the popularity of Airbnb over time. The popularity is proportional to the number of reviews. Importing the reviews dataset:

reviews = pd.read_csv('reviews.csv.gz', parse_dates=['date'])
listing_id id date reviewer_id reviewer_name comments
0 11551 30672 2010-03-21 93896 Shar-Lyn The flat was bright, comfortable and clean and...
1 11551 32236 2010-03-29 97890 Zane We stayed with Adriano and Valerio for a week ...
2 11551 41044 2010-05-09 104133 Chase Adriano was a fantastic host. We felt very at ...
3 11551 48926 2010-06-01 122714 John & Sylvia We had a most wonderful stay with Adriano and ...
4 11551 58352 2010-06-28 111543 Monique I'm not sure which of us misunderstood the s...

Scatter plot

To find the number of reviews, we add the total reviews every day, and we then plot it across time as a scatter plot.

fs, axs = plt.subplots(1, figsize=(15,10))
plt.title("Airbnb London: Number of reviews across time", fontsize=30)

reviews.groupby('date').aggregate({'listing_id':'count'}).reset_index().plot.scatter(x = 'date', y = 'listing_id', alpha = 0.25, ax = axs)
axs.set_ylabel('Number of reviews', fontsize=20)
axs.set_xlabel('Time', fontsize=20)


From this plot, we can observe the following:
1. There is an exponential growth in the business pre-pandemic and this has a sudden drop after Covid related restrictions started.
2. Seasonality within every year is visible
To expand n these trends, we should zoom in two sections of the plot. First we should find the seasonality and trend of the data, and then zoom into one of the pre-pandemic year to elaborate on the seasonality. Second, we can zoom into 2020-21 to identify the patterns from covid related lockdowns.

# getting the total number of reviews per day
reviews_time = reviews.groupby('date').aggregate({'listing_id':'count'}).reset_index()
reviews_time['year'] =

# Pre covid data
reviews_time_proper = reviews_time[(reviews_time.year < 2020)]

We can find seasonality and trend within the pre-pandemic data by using decomposition (not explained in this blog). Splitting the data into trend, seasonal and random component, gives me the following:

from statsmodels.tsa.seasonal import seasonal_decompose
result = seasonal_decompose(reviews_time_proper.listing_id, model='additive', period = 365)


We can see an exponential trend and a repeating constant seasonality within the data. Identifying and predicting pre-pandemic trend and predicting for 2020-21.

y_values = result.trend[182:3136]
x_values = range(182, 3136)
coeffs = np.polyfit(x_values, y_values, 2)
poly_eqn = np.poly1d(coeffs)
y_hat = poly_eqn(range(365, len(reviews_time[reviews_time.year < 2020])))
y_hat1 = poly_eqn(range(len(reviews_time[reviews_time.year < 2020]), len(reviews_time)))

Approximating the seasonality by using a polynomial equation.

y_values = reviews_time[reviews_time.year == 2019].listing_id
x_values = range(365)
coeffs = np.polyfit(x_values, y_values, 15)
poly_eqn = np.poly1d(coeffs)
y_hat_seasonal = poly_eqn(range(365))

Approximating the pattern in 2020-21 with a polynomial equation.

reviews_covid = reviews_time[reviews_time.year >= 2020]
y_values = reviews_covid.listing_id
x_values = range(len(reviews_covid.listing_id))
coeffs = np.polyfit(x_values, y_values, 17)
poly_eqn = np.poly1d(coeffs)
y_hat_covid = poly_eqn(range(25, len(reviews_covid.listing_id)-15))
from mpl_toolkits.axes_grid1.inset_locator import mark_inset, inset_axes
from matplotlib.patches import ConnectionPatch # making lines from top lot to below plot

# Two plots, the main on the top with height 20 inches and the bottom one is 10 inches.
fs, axs = plt.subplots(2, figsize=(20,30), gridspec_kw={'height_ratios': [2, 1]}, constrained_layout=True)

# Title
plt.suptitle("Airbnb London: Number of reviews across time", fontsize=30)

# First plot, main scatterplot
    reset_index().plot.scatter(x = 'date', y = 'listing_id', alpha = 0.25, ax = axs[0])

# adding the trend lines
axs[0].plot(reviews_time[365:len(reviews_time[reviews_time.year < 2020])].date,y_hat, color='red')
axs[0].plot(reviews_time[len(reviews_time[reviews_time.year < 2020]):].date,y_hat1, color='red', linestyle='dashed')

# Modifying the labels and title
axs[0].set_ylabel('Number of reviews', fontsize=15)
axs[0].set_xlabel('Time', fontsize=15)
axs[0].set_title('Total reviews of all types of rooms across London. A trend line is plotted taking the exponential growth of the business before Covid 19 and projecting the same trend during Covid. \n'+
'Seasonality before Covid is shown by zooming for 2019 (sample year). The affect of covid related lockdowns is also shown by zooming from 2020 onwards.',
                      fontsize=15, loc='left')

# Plotting the data within 2019 as a semantic zooming
axins = inset_axes(axs[0], 8, 5, loc=2, bbox_to_anchor=(0.15, 0.925),

# Semantic zooming plot, scatterplot
    plot.scatter(x = 'date', y = 'listing_id', alpha = 0.5, ax = axins)
#adding the trend lines, labels and title
plt.plot(reviews_time[reviews_time.year == 2019].date,y_hat_seasonal, color='red')
plt.ylabel('Number of reviews', fontsize=15)
plt.xlabel('Date', fontsize=15)
plt.title('Sesonality in a year (before COVID 19)', fontsize=20)

# Seasonality plot x and y limits
x1 = min(reviews_time[reviews_time.year == 2019].date)
x2 = max(reviews_time[reviews_time.year == 2019].date)
axins.set_xlim(x1, x2)
axins.set_ylim(0, 2000)
mark_inset(axs[0], axins, loc1=1, loc2=3, fc="none", ec="0.5")

# Second plot
x1 = min(reviews_time[reviews_time.year == 2020].date)
x2 = max(reviews_time[reviews_time.year >= 2020].date)

reviews_time[reviews_time.year >= 2020].plot.scatter(x = 'date', y = 'listing_id', alpha = 0.75, ax = axs[1])
axs[1].set_ylabel('Number of reviews', fontsize=15)
axs[1].set_xlabel('Date', fontsize=15)
axs[1].set_ylim(0, 1200)
axs[1].set_xlim(x1, x2)
axs[1].set_title('Effect of Covid19 on number of reviews', fontsize=20)

axs[1].plot([25:-15],y_hat_covid, color='red')

# Adding annotations in the plot
        text = 'First Covid 19 advisory \n 3-16-2020', # the text
        xy=('3-16-2020', 500), #what to annotate
        xytext=('3-16-2020', 700), # where the text should be
        'First Lockdown \n 3-23-2020', 
        xy=('3-23-2020', 350),
        xytext=('5-10-2020', 600), 
        'Easing restrictions \n 7-4-2020', 
        xy=('7-4-2020', 50), 
        xytext=('6-15-2020', 700),
        'Restrictions eased further \n 8-14-2020',
        xy=('8-14-2020', 250), 
        xytext=('8-1-2020', 600),
        'Second Lockdown \n 10-31-2020', 
        xy=('10-31-2020', 165),
        xytext=('10-1-2020', 700), 
        'Easing restrictions \n 12-2-2020', 
        xy=('12-2-2020', 120), 
        xytext=('11-10-2020', 600), 
        'Christmas \n 12-25-2020',
        xy=('12-25-2020', 160), 
        xytext=('12-25-2020', 700), 
        'Third Lockdown \n 1-6-2021',
        xy=('1-6-2021', 140),
        xytext=('1-20-2021', 600), 
        'Schools reopen \n 3-8-2021', 
        xy=('3-8-2021', 125), 
        xytext=('2-25-2021', 700), 
        'All restrictions removed \n 6-21-2021', 
        xy=('6-21-2021', 400),
        xytext=('5-21-2021', 700), 
        'Non essentials reopen \n 4-12-2021', 
        xy=('4-12-2021', 270), 
        xytext=('4-1-2021', 600),

# plotting the connections between the two plots
con = ConnectionPatch(xyA=(x1,-105), xyB=(x1,1200), coordsA="data", coordsB="data",
                      axesA=axs[0], axesB=axs[1])
# con = ConnectionPatch(axesA=axs[0], axesB=axs[1])
con = ConnectionPatch(xyA=(x2,-105), xyB=(x2,1200), coordsA="data", coordsB="data",
                      axesA=axs[0], axesB=axs[1])


From this plot, we can see the following:
1. The variation of the reviews across time and the trend before the pandemic are captured. The trend is extrapolated to 2020-21 to show the growth that could have happened if not for the pandemic.
2. Seasonality within the data is shown by semantic zooming into one sample year. We can see how Airbnb is more popular in July, September and January.
3. We can also see the effect of the pandemic on the number of reviews. We can observe a sharp decline in the first few months of 2020, and then how lockdowns and openings have affected the total number of reviews.

Sunburst and pie charts

Let us now deep dive into the data and look at the type of listings and locations that have contributed to this growth. Importing the complete listings dataset.

listing_detailed = pd.read_csv('listings.csv.gz')
pd.options.display.max_columns = None # to show all the columns
id listing_url scrape_id last_scraped name description neighborhood_overview picture_url host_id host_url host_name host_since host_location host_about host_response_time host_response_rate host_acceptance_rate host_is_superhost host_thumbnail_url host_picture_url host_neighbourhood host_listings_count host_total_listings_count host_verifications host_has_profile_pic host_identity_verified neighbourhood neighbourhood_cleansed neighbourhood_group_cleansed latitude longitude property_type room_type accommodates bathrooms bathrooms_text bedrooms beds amenities price minimum_nights maximum_nights minimum_minimum_nights maximum_minimum_nights minimum_maximum_nights maximum_maximum_nights minimum_nights_avg_ntm maximum_nights_avg_ntm calendar_updated has_availability availability_30 availability_60 availability_90 availability_365 calendar_last_scraped number_of_reviews number_of_reviews_ltm number_of_reviews_l30d first_review last_review review_scores_rating review_scores_accuracy review_scores_cleanliness review_scores_checkin review_scores_communication review_scores_location review_scores_value license instant_bookable calculated_host_listings_count calculated_host_listings_count_entire_homes calculated_host_listings_count_private_rooms calculated_host_listings_count_shared_rooms reviews_per_month
0 11551 20210706215658 2021-07-08 Arty and Bright London Apartment in Zone 2 Unlike most rental apartments my flat gives yo... Not even 10 minutes by metro from Victoria Sta... 43039 Adriano 2009-10-03 London, England, United Kingdom Hello, I'm a friendly Italian man with a posit... within an hour 100% 85% f Brixton 0.0 0.0 ['email', 'phone', 'reviews', 'jumio', 'offlin... t t London, United Kingdom Lambeth NaN 51.46095 -0.11758 Entire apartment Entire home/apt 4 NaN 1 bath 1.0 3.0 ["Hot water", "Hair dryer", "Smoke alarm", "Fi... $99.00 2 1125 2.0 2.0 1125.0 1125.0 2.0 1125.0 NaN t 0 30 58 290 2021-07-08 193 1 0 2011-10-11 2018-04-29 4.57 4.62 4.58 4.78 4.85 4.53 4.52 NaN f 3 3 0 0 1.63
1 13913 20210706215658 2021-07-08 Holiday London DB Room Let-on going My bright double bedroom with a large window h... Finsbury Park is a friendly melting pot commun... 54730 Alina 2009-11-16 London, England, United Kingdom I am a Multi-Media Visual Artist and Creative ... within a few hours 100% 100% f LB of Islington 3.0 3.0 ['email', 'phone', 'facebook', 'reviews', 'off... t t Islington, Greater London, United Kingdom Islington NaN 51.56861 -0.11270 Private room in apartment Private room 2 NaN 1 shared bath 1.0 0.0 ["Host greets you", "Dryer", "Hot water", "Sha... $65.00 1 29 1.0 1.0 29.0 29.0 1.0 29.0 NaN t 30 60 90 365 2021-07-08 21 0 0 2011-07-11 2011-09-13 4.85 4.79 4.84 4.79 4.89 4.63 4.74 NaN f 2 1 1 0 0.17
2 15400 20210706215658 2021-07-08 Bright Chelsea Apartment. Chelsea! Lots of windows and light. St Luke's Gardens ... It is Chelsea. 60302 Philippa 2009-12-05 Kensington, England, United Kingdom English, grandmother, I have travelled quite ... NaN NaN NaN f Chelsea 1.0 1.0 ['email', 'phone', 'reviews', 'jumio', 'govern... t t London, United Kingdom Kensington and Chelsea NaN 51.48780 -0.16813 Entire apartment Entire home/apt 2 NaN 1 bath 1.0 1.0 ["Dryer", "Hot water", "Shampoo", "Hair dryer"... $75.00 10 50 10.0 10.0 50.0 50.0 10.0 50.0 NaN t 0 14 44 319 2021-07-08 89 0 0 2012-07-16 2019-08-10 4.79 4.84 4.88 4.87 4.82 4.93 4.73 NaN t 1 1 0 0 0.81
3 17402 20210706215658 2021-07-08 Superb 3-Bed/2 Bath & Wifi: Trendy W1 You'll have a wonderful stay in this superb mo... Location, location, location! You won't find b... 67564 Liz 2010-01-04 Brighton and Hove, England, United Kingdom We are Liz and Jack. We manage a number of ho... within a day 70% 90% f Fitzrovia 18.0 18.0 ['email', 'phone', 'reviews', 'jumio', 'offlin... t t London, Fitzrovia, United Kingdom Westminster NaN 51.52195 -0.14094 Entire apartment Entire home/apt 6 NaN 2 baths 3.0 3.0 ["Dryer", "Hot water", "Shampoo", "Hair dryer"... $307.00 4 365 4.0 4.0 365.0 365.0 4.0 365.0 NaN t 6 6 17 218 2021-07-08 43 1 1 2011-09-18 2019-11-02 4.69 4.80 4.68 4.66 4.66 4.85 4.59 NaN f 15 15 0 0 0.36
4 17506 20210706215658 2021-07-08 Boutique Chelsea/Fulham Double bed 5-star ensuite Enjoy a chic stay in this elegant but fully mo... Fulham is 'villagey' and residential – a real ... 67915 Charlotte 2010-01-05 London, England, United Kingdom Named best B&B by The Times. Easy going hosts,... NaN NaN NaN f Fulham 3.0 3.0 ['email', 'phone', 'jumio', 'selfie', 'governm... t t London, United Kingdom Hammersmith and Fulham NaN 51.47935 -0.19743 Private room in townhouse Private room 2 NaN 1 private bath 1.0 1.0 ["Air conditioning", "Carbon monoxide alarm", ... $150.00 3 21 3.0 3.0 21.0 21.0 3.0 21.0 NaN t 29 59 89 364 2021-07-08 0 0 0 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN f 2 0 2 0 NaN

Looking at the number of reviews by room type and by location, we have:

    plot.pie(y='number_of_reviews', figsize=(10, 10), 
             autopct='%1.1f%%' # to add the percentages text
plt.title("Airbnb London: Number of reviews by room type", fontsize=20)


# Function to combine last few classes ito one class
total_other_reviews = 0
def combine_last_n(df):
    df1 = df.copy()
    global total_other_reviews 
    total_other_reviews = (sum(df[df.number_of_reviews <= 5000].number_of_reviews))
    df1.loc[df.number_of_reviews <= 10000, 'number_of_reviews'] = 0
    return df1.number_of_reviews

    sort_values('number_of_reviews', ascending = False).\
    assign(no_reviews_alt = combine_last_n).\
    append(pd.Series({'number_of_reviews': 0, 'no_reviews_alt':total_other_reviews}, name='Others')).\
    plot.pie(y='no_reviews_alt', figsize=(10, 10), legend=None, rotatelabels=True, 
             wedgeprops=dict(width=.5) # for donut shape


We can see that private room is the most popular with the most number of reviews followed by entire home/apt. The others are insignificant. Similarly, Westminster and Camden are the top two locations in London. Using a sunburst chart, we can look at these two combined.

listings_sunburst = listing_detailed.groupby(['room_type', 'neighbourhood_cleansed']).\
    sort_values('number_of_reviews', ascending = False).reset_index()

fig = px.sunburst(listings_sunburst, path=['room_type', 'neighbourhood_cleansed'], values='number_of_reviews',
                  hover_data = ['room_type', 'number_of_reviews'], hover_name = 'neighbourhood_cleansed',
                 title = 'Airbnb London: Popularity sunburst chart', width = 900, height = 900)


Parallel Coordinates

From this chart, we can see that Westminster is the most popular location for all the room types, the second and the third popular are different for different room types. Let us take Kensington and Chelsea for example, we can see the ranking of this area in every room type using a parallel coordinates plot.

top_20_names = list(listings_sunburst.sort_values('number_of_reviews', ascending = False).head(30)['neighbourhood_cleansed'])

listings_sunburst_wide = listings_sunburst.\
    pivot(index='neighbourhood_cleansed', columns='room_type', values='number_of_reviews').reset_index()
listings_sunburst_wide = listings_sunburst_wide.replace(np.nan, 0)

fig = px.parallel_coordinates(

# add the pink line to highlight Kensington[0]['dimensions'][0]['constraintrange'] = [50000, 60000]

fig.update_layout(title_text='Kensington and Chelsea (in blue) popularity ranking across room types', title_x=0.7, title_y = 0.05)


From this chart we can see how Kensington (highlighted in Blue) is in top 2 for 'Entire Home Apartment' while it's not in the top 5 for shared room. This chart, along with the sunburst above shows what type of locations are popular for different room types.

Bar chart and Steam graphs

How does this ratio between the popularities change with time? One way to see this is using a stacked bar chart.

reviews_detailed = pd.merge(listing_detailed[['id', 'neighbourhood_cleansed', 'room_type']], reviews, left_on = 'id', right_on = 'listing_id')
fs, axs = plt.subplots(1, figsize=(15,10))
reviews_detailed['year'] =
reviews_detailed.groupby(['year', 'room_type']).\
    unstack().reset_index().\ = 'year', y = 'listing_id', ax = axs, stacked = True)
plt.title('Popularity of different rooms across the years', fontsize = 25)
plt.legend(loc='upper right', title="Type of room", fontsize='medium',fancybox=True)
axs.set_ylabel('Number of reviews', fontsize=20)
axs.set_xlabel('Years', fontsize=20)


From this bar chart we can see the same increase that we have seen in the scatter plot, that is an exponential increase till 2019, and a subsequent decrease due to the pandemic. Another cool way to look at this is by looking at streamgraphs. In streamgraph, we can see the effect of seasonality within the classes.

fs, ax = plt.subplots(1, figsize=(15,10))
reviews_room = reviews_detailed.groupby(['date', 'room_type']).\
reviews_room.columns = ['date', 'Entire home/apt', 'Hotel room', 'Private room', 'Shared room']
            list(reviews_room[['Entire home/apt', 'Hotel room', 'Private room', 'Shared room']].fillna(0).\
plt.title('Popularity of different rooms across the years', fontsize=20, y=1.05,loc='left')
ax.text("2010",1050,'Streamgraph of the number of reviews across time',ha='left', fontsize=12)

plt.legend(['Entire home/apt', 'Hotel room', 'Private room', 'Shared room'], loc='upper left', title="Type of room")
ax.set_xlabel('Years', fontsize=20)



Which locations are better, and which locations should improve on their rating? We can find the average rating across the location by averaging out the rating for each host within the location.

location_rating = listing_detailed.groupby(['neighbourhood_cleansed', 'room_type']).\
location_rating.columns = ['neighbourhood', 'Entire home/apt', 'Hotel room', 'Private room', 'Shared room']
location_rating.index = location_rating.neighbourhood

One of the ways to visualise the average rating is using a heatmap.

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=[20,len(location_rating)/3.3])
sns.heatmap(data=location_rating[['Entire home/apt', 'Hotel room', 'Private room', 'Shared room']],
            annot=False, cbar_kws={"shrink":0.5,"orientation":'vertical'},linewidths=0.004,linecolor='grey',vmin=0,vmax=5, center = 0.25)


Although this heatmap presents us the with the average ratings per borough, we can further add the following details for clarity:
1. Location of the borough in London (e.g.: Central London)
2. Arranged from the best rated to the worst rated boroughs within each location
3. Proper colour selection based on scale and human rating psychology : Average human ratings below 2.5 means bad rating and above 4.5 means very good rating (out of 5). It is more natural to use a diverging red-green scale for displaying negative-positive relationship.

def add_regions(df, borough_col_name):
    This function takes as input a dataframe with a column which includes London's borough name
    Then returns the same dataframw with sub regions names added for each borough
    central = ['Camden', 'City of London', 'Kensington and Chelsea', 'Islington', 'Lambeth', 'Southwark', 'Westminster']
    east = ['Barking and Dagenham', 'Bexley', 'Greenwich', 'Hackney', 'Havering', 'Lewisham', 'Newham', 'Redbridge', 'Tower Hamlets', 'Waltham Forest']
    north = ['Barnet', 'Enfield', 'Haringey']
    south = ['Bromley', 'Croydon', 'Kingston upon Thames', 'Merton', 'Sutton', 'Wandsworth']
    west = ['Brent', 'Ealing', 'Hammersmith and Fulham', 'Harrow', 'Richmond upon Thames', 'Hillingdon', 'Hounslow']

    df['sub_regions'] = np.where((df[borough_col_name] == central[0]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == central[1]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == central[2]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == central[3]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == central[4]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == central[5]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == central[6]) 
                                       , 'Central', 'no')

    df['sub_regions'] = np.where((df[borough_col_name] == east[0]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == east[1]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == east[2]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == east[3]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == east[4]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == east[5]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == east[6]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == east[7]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == east[8]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == east[9]) 
                                       , 'East', df['sub_regions'])

    df['sub_regions'] = np.where((df[borough_col_name] == north[0]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == north[1]) |
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == north[2]) 
                                       , 'North', df['sub_regions'])

    df['sub_regions'] = np.where((df[borough_col_name] == south[0]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == south[1]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == south[2]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == south[3]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == south[4]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == south[5])  
                                       , 'South', df['sub_regions'])

    df['sub_regions'] = np.where((df[borough_col_name] == west[0]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == west[1]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == west[2]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == west[3]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == west[4]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == west[5]) | 
                                       (df[borough_col_name] == west[6]) 
                                       , 'West', df['sub_regions'])

    return df
def sort_data(df):
    Groups the data by location and sorts the data based on average rating within the location. 
    Different locations are sorted by average rating.
    df1 = df.copy()
    df1['average_rating'] = (df1['Entire home/apt']+ df1['Hotel room'] + df1['Private room']+df1['Shared room'])/4
    df1['location_average'] = df1.groupby('sub_regions')['average_rating'].transform('mean')
    df1 = df1.sort_values(['location_average', 'average_rating'], ascending=False)
    return df1[['Private room', 'Entire home/apt', 'Hotel room', 'Shared room', 'sub_regions']]

def prepare_reg_annotation_lists():
    Creates the annotation in the form of groups within the data. Displays this on the right hand side of the heatmap.
    reg_sorted_list = location_rating.sub_regions.unique()
    reg_len = location_rating.sub_regions.value_counts().to_dict()

    sorted_len = []
    cum_len = []
    arrow_style_str_list = []

    # here we define the width of the bracket used, which is proportional to the number of boroughs within a sub region
    for i in range(5):
        if i==0:
            value = reg_len[reg_sorted_list[i]]
            cum_value = value
            value = reg_len[reg_sorted_list[i]]
            cum_value += value


    # here we define ticks which represent the center location of each sub region relative to the heatmap
    Ticks = []
    for i in range(5):
        if i == 0:

    return Ticks,arrow_style_str_list,reg_sorted_list

location_rating = location_rating.replace(np.nan, 2.5)
location_rating = add_regions(location_rating, 'neighbourhood')
location_rating = sort_data(location_rating)
Ticks_h,arrow,region = prepare_reg_annotation_lists()

A diverging red-green palate is chosen to represent good reviews and bad reviews.

red_green_cmap = sns.diverging_palette(10, 133,as_cmap=True)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=[20,len(location_rating)/3.3])
sns.heatmap(data=location_rating[['Private room', 'Entire home/apt', 'Hotel room', 'Shared room']],
            annot=False, cbar_kws={"shrink":0.5,"orientation":'vertical'},linewidths=0.004,linecolor='grey',vmin=2.25,vmax=4.75,
           cmap = red_green_cmap)
plt.title("Average ratings for different locations in London", fontsize=20, y=1.1,loc='left')
plt.text(0,-1,'Heatmap depicting the ratings among different locations in London. If no rating is available, minimum rating of 2.5 is assumed. \n Good ratings are ratings above 3.5 while bad ratings are below. The data is grouped by location (right) and sorted by average rating.',ha='left', fontsize=12)

#annotation for the borough
for i in range(5):
    ax.annotate(region[i],xy=(1.01,Ticks_h[i]), xytext=(1.02,Ticks_h[i]), xycoords='axes fraction',
                ha='left',va='center', arrowprops=dict(arrowstyle=arrow[i],lw=1))       


We can see the ratings are good across the private rooms and entire home. The best location in each zone is:
- West: Richmond upon Thames
- Central: Camden
- North: Enfield
- East: Hackney
- South: Croydon


In this context, it's not fair to compare ratings of different locations as we have seen that their popularities are different. So there could be 10 reviews in one location while 100 reviews in another. To combine them, we can use a treemap.

reviews_treemap = listing_detailed.groupby(['neighbourhood_cleansed']).\
    aggregate({'review_scores_rating':'mean', 'number_of_reviews':'sum'}).reset_index()
reviews_treemap = add_regions(reviews_treemap, 'neighbourhood_cleansed')

#change col names for nice viz on hover
reviews_treemap.columns = ['neighbourhood', 'Average Reviews', 'Number of reviews', 'regions']

fig = px.treemap(reviews_treemap, path=[px.Constant("London"), 'regions', 'neighbourhood'], values='Number of reviews', 
           color = 'Average Reviews', color_continuous_scale='RdBu')
fig.update_layout(margin = dict(t=50, l=25, r=25, b=25))
fig.update_layout(title_text='Airbnb London: Ratings overview')

Word cloud

Now that we have classified the ratings into good ratings and bad ratings, let us look at the text in these ratings and identify if there are any patterns.

reviews_detailed_text = pd.merge(listing_detailed[['id', 'description','neighborhood_overview', 'host_about', 'review_scores_rating']], reviews, left_on = 'id', right_on = 'listing_id')
reviews_detailed_positive_text = reviews_detailed_text[reviews_detailed_text.review_scores_rating > 3.75]
reviews_detailed_negative_text = reviews_detailed_text[reviews_detailed_text.review_scores_rating <= 3.75]

Selecting 100 random reviews each for positive and negative sets.

pos_reviews_text = reviews_detailed_positive_text.sample(n=100, random_state = 2)
neg_reviews_text = reviews_detailed_negative_text.sample(n=100, random_state = 3)

Word cloud for positive reviews

# !pip install wordcloud
from wordcloud import WordCloud, STOPWORDS, ImageColorGenerator
from PIL import Image
mask_pos = np.array('thumbs-up-xxl.png'))

# word cloud, good vs bad ratings
stop_words = ["https", "co", "RT", 'br', '<br>', '<br/>', '\r', 'r'] + list(STOPWORDS)
wordcloud_pattern = WordCloud(stopwords = stop_words, background_color="white", max_words=2000, max_font_size=256,
               random_state=42, mask = mask_pos, width=mask_pos.shape[1], height=mask_pos.shape[0])
wordcloud_positive = wordcloud_pattern.generate(pos_reviews_text)

plt.imshow(wordcloud_positive, interpolation='bilinear')


Word cloud for negative reviews

mask_neg = np.array('thumbs-down-xxl.png'))

# word cloud, good vs bad ratings
wordcloud_pattern = WordCloud(stopwords = stop_words, background_color="white", max_words=2000, max_font_size=256,
               random_state=42, mask = mask_neg, width=mask_neg.shape[1], height=mask_neg.shape[0])
wordcloud_neg = wordcloud_pattern.generate(neg_reviews_text)

plt.imshow(wordcloud_neg, interpolation='bilinear')


Combining the positive and negative reviews in one plot to compare the differences:

fs, axs = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(20,10))
plt.suptitle("Airbnb London: Wordcloud of positive and negative reviews", fontsize=20)
plt.figtext(0.5, 0.925, 'Wordcloud derived from a random sample of 100 positive and 100 negative reviews.',
            wrap=True, horizontalalignment='center', fontsize=12)

axs[0].imshow(wordcloud_positive, interpolation='bilinear')

axs[1].imshow(wordcloud_neg, interpolation='bilinear')


From these plots, we can see that automated postings, cancellations by hosts, and issues during arrival are the main issues that Airbnb should look into.

Correlation matrix

How are different parameters within the data related. How is ratings correlated with availability or maximum nights? This can be explained using a correlation plot.

listing_detailed['host_response_rate'] = listing_detailed['host_response_rate'].str.replace('%', '').astype(float)
listing_detailed['host_acceptance_rate'] = listing_detailed['host_acceptance_rate'].str.replace('%', '').astype(float)
listing_detailed['price'] = listing_detailed['price'].str.replace('$', '').str.replace(',', '').astype(float)
col_for_corr = ['review_scores_rating', 'review_scores_accuracy', 'review_scores_cleanliness', 'review_scores_checkin', 'review_scores_communication', 'review_scores_location', 'review_scores_value',
                'number_of_reviews', 'number_of_reviews_ltm', 'number_of_reviews_l30d', 'reviews_per_month',
                'availability_30', 'availability_60', 'availability_90', 'availability_365',
                'minimum_nights', 'maximum_nights', 'minimum_minimum_nights', 'maximum_minimum_nights', 'minimum_maximum_nights', 'maximum_maximum_nights', 'minimum_nights_avg_ntm', 'maximum_nights_avg_ntm',
                'bedrooms', 'beds','accommodates', 'price', 
                'host_response_rate', 'host_acceptance_rate', 'host_total_listings_count']

f = plt.figure(figsize=(20, 20))
plt.matshow(listing_detailed[col_for_corr].corr(), fignum = f, cmap = red_green_cmap, vmin=-1, vmax=1)
           listing_detailed[col_for_corr].select_dtypes(['number']).columns, rotation=90, fontsize = 15)
           listing_detailed[col_for_corr].select_dtypes(['number']).columns, rotation=0, fontsize = 15)
cb = plt.colorbar()
plt.title("Airbnb London: Correlation between different parameters", fontsize=20,loc='left')
plt.text(0,32,'Correlation matrix displaying the different parameters within the data. DIverging green (+ve) red (-ve) scale is used to display the correlations.\n \
    Features considered: Review scores, Number of reviews, availability, maximum and minimum days of stay, host and room parameters.',
         ha='left', fontsize=12)


Scatterplot matrix

While the above plot shows the correlation across various variables, I want to deep dive into change in ratings with price. I can use a scatterplot matrix to visualise this. Additionally, I want the costliest properties, and the most popular yet cheap properties annotated.

def annotate_plot(x, y, **kwargs):

    if( == 'price' and == 'review_scores_rating'):
        ax = plt.gca()
        for index, obj in listing_detailed.nlargest(2, 'price').iterrows():
                obj['name'], # the text
                xy=(obj.price, obj.review_scores_rating), 
                xytext=(7500, obj.review_scores_rating-0.5),
    elif( == 'price' and == 'number_of_reviews'):
        ax = plt.gca()
        for index, obj in listing_detailed.nlargest(3, 'number_of_reviews').iterrows():
            ax.text(obj.price, obj.number_of_reviews, obj['name'])
col_for_pairplot = ['review_scores_rating', 'number_of_reviews',  'price']

sns_plot = sns.pairplot(listing_detailed, vars = col_for_pairplot,  kind='scatter',  hue = 'room_type', diag_kind='kde',)
sns_plot.fig.set_size_inches(20, 20)
sns_plot._legend.set_bbox_to_anchor((0.15, 0.89))
sns_plot.fig.suptitle("Airbnb London: Scatterplot matrix", fontsize = 20, y=1)


We can see that the two costliest properties are either historic apartments or a mansion. The three most popular yet cheap properties are small and quaint properties near popular destinations.

Boxplot and Violin chart

To look at the variation in ratings within the different room types, we could use either a boxplot or a Violin plot as shown.

fs, axs = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(20,20))
listing_detailed.boxplot(column = 'review_scores_rating', by = 'room_type', figsize = (10,20), ax = axs[0])
sns.violinplot('room_type','review_scores_rating', data=listing_detailed, ax = axs[1])
plt.suptitle("Airbnb London: Average rating across room types", fontsize = 20, y=0.95)

plt.figtext(0.5, 0.925, 'Boxplot (left) and Violin plot (right) for the average review across room types',
            wrap=True, horizontalalignment='center', fontsize=12)


for ax in axs:
    ax.set_ylim(-1, 6)
    ax.set_ylabel('Average Rating', fontsize=12)
    ax.set_xlabel('Room types', fontsize=12)


Cluster map

If we wanted to cluster localities based on some features, then cluster map is the ideal choice. In the below map, we cluster different locations based on one feature from each type. The features are also clustered to show the similarity between features. Finally, we use a white-blue colour palette for displaying the variation within the data.

from sklearn.preprocessing import MinMaxScaler
import seaborn as sns
col_for_corr = [ 'price', 'review_scores_rating', 'number_of_reviews', 'availability_90', 'minimum_nights_avg_ntm', 'bedrooms', 

df_cluster = listing_detailed.groupby('neighbourhood_cleansed').aggregate({

scaler = MinMaxScaler()
df_cluster1 = pd.DataFrame(scaler.fit_transform(df_cluster[col_for_corr]), columns=col_for_corr)
df_cluster1.index = df_cluster.neighbourhood_cleansed

crest_cmap = sns.color_palette("crest", as_cmap=True)

g = sns.clustermap(df_cluster1, cmap = crest_cmap, vmin = 0, vmax = 1)
plt.title("Airbnb London: Clusters within London", fontsize=20,loc='left', y = 2, x = -25)
g.ax_cbar.set_position((1, .2, .03, .4))



  1. Visualisation Analytics and Design, Tamara Munzner
  2. Class notes and assignments, Visualisation module, MSc Business Analytics, Imperial College London, Class 2020-22
  3. Ahmed Khedr, Ankit Mahajan, Harsha Achyuthuni, Shaked Atia Report: Visualizing demand,supply,prices and ratings for Airbnb in London
  4. Visual Analytics lab at JKU Linz
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